French Impressionist Painter, 1841-1919
Pierre-Auguste Renoir (February 25, 1841?CDecember 3, 1919) was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. As a celebrator of beauty, and especially feminine sensuality, it has been said that "Renoir is the final representative of a tradition which runs directly from Rubens to Watteau".
Renoir's paintings are notable for their vibrant light and saturated color, most often focusing on people in intimate and candid compositions. The female nude was one of his primary subjects. In characteristic Impressionist style, Renoir suggested the details of a scene through freely brushed touches of color, so that his figures softly fuse with one another and their surroundings.
His initial paintings show the influence of the colorism of Eugene Delacroix and the luminosity of Camille Corot. He also admired the realism of Gustave Courbet and Edouard Manet, and his early work resembles theirs in his use of black as a color. As well, Renoir admired Edgar Degas' sense of movement. Another painter Renoir greatly admired was the 18th century master François Boucher.
A fine example of Renoir's early work, and evidence of the influence of Courbet's realism, is Diana, 1867. Ostensibly a mythological subject, the painting is a naturalistic studio work, the figure carefully observed, solidly modeled, and superimposed upon a contrived landscape. If the work is still a 'student' piece, already Renoir's heightened personal response to female sensuality is present. The model was Lise Tr??hot, then the artist's mistress and inspiration for a number of paintings.
In the late 1860s, through the practice of painting light and water en plein air (in the open air), he and his friend Claude Monet discovered that the color of shadows is not brown or black, but the reflected color of the objects surrounding them. Several pairs of paintings exist in which Renoir and Monet, working side-by-side, depicted the same scenes (La Grenouill??re, 1869).
One of the best known Impressionist works is Renoir's 1876 Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette (Le Bal au Moulin de la Galette). The painting depicts an open-air scene, crowded with people, at a popular dance garden on the Butte Montmartre, close to where he lived.
On the Terrace, oil on canvas, 1881, Art Institute of ChicagoThe works of his early maturity were typically Impressionist snapshots of real life, full of sparkling colour and light. By the mid 1880s, however, he had broken with the movement to apply a more disciplined, formal technique to portraits and figure paintings, particularly of women, such as The Bathers, which was created during 1884-87. It was a trip to Italy in 1881, when he saw works by Raphael and other Renaissance masters, that convinced him that he was on the wrong path, and for the next several years he painted in a more severe style, in an attempt to return to classicism. This is sometimes called his "Ingres period", as he concentrated on his drawing and emphasized the outlines of figures.
After 1890, however, he changed direction again, returning to the use of thinly brushed color which dissolved outlines as in his earlier work. From this period onward he concentrated especially on monumental nudes and domestic scenes, fine examples of which are Girls at the Piano, 1892, and Grandes Baigneuses, 1918-19. The latter painting is the most typical and successful of Renoir's late, abundantly fleshed nudes.
A prolific artist, he made several thousand paintings. The warm sensuality of Renoir's style made his paintings some of the most well-known and frequently-reproduced works in the history of art.. Related Paintings of Pierre Renoir :. | The First Step | Box at the Theatre | The Promenade | Stephane Mallarme | In the Meadow |
Related Artists:Friedrich Eduard Meyerheim
painted Die Kegelgesellschaft in 1834Karel Dujardin
Karel Dujardin Locations
Dujardin was born in Amsterdam in 1640. After training with Nicolaes Berchem, he went to Italy when young, and became a member of the Society of Painters at Rome, among whom, he was known as Barba di Becco. In Rome, his works met with general approbation.
According to some sources, on his way back to his native country, he contracted considerable debts at Lyon, to free himself from which, he married his old and rich landlady. He went with her to Amsterdam, where his pictures were valued very highly. He soon secretly left his home in that city, probably from dislike of his wife, and went back to Rome in 1675, where he was welcomed by his old friends and admirers, and lived at great expense. After a vist to Tangier he went to Venice, where he died in 1678.
Most of his paintings are cabinet paintings of Italianate landscapes and or with farm animals and peasants. His landscapes have spirit and harmony, his figures expression, and his colour the brilliancy which distinguishes his school. His paintings are rare and command a high price. He also published fifty-two etchings of simiar subjects, with great spirit and ease.
He painted a single, fine, portrait (probably a self-portrait), and a pair of Baroque religious paintings on the life of St Paul, probably commissioned, as they lie well outside his normal style. One of these, and the portrait, are in the National Gallery, LondonAlfred Guillou
French Academic Painter, 1844-1926