French Impressionist Painter, 1841-1919
Pierre-Auguste Renoir (February 25, 1841?CDecember 3, 1919) was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. As a celebrator of beauty, and especially feminine sensuality, it has been said that "Renoir is the final representative of a tradition which runs directly from Rubens to Watteau".
Renoir's paintings are notable for their vibrant light and saturated color, most often focusing on people in intimate and candid compositions. The female nude was one of his primary subjects. In characteristic Impressionist style, Renoir suggested the details of a scene through freely brushed touches of color, so that his figures softly fuse with one another and their surroundings.
His initial paintings show the influence of the colorism of Eugene Delacroix and the luminosity of Camille Corot. He also admired the realism of Gustave Courbet and Edouard Manet, and his early work resembles theirs in his use of black as a color. As well, Renoir admired Edgar Degas' sense of movement. Another painter Renoir greatly admired was the 18th century master François Boucher.
A fine example of Renoir's early work, and evidence of the influence of Courbet's realism, is Diana, 1867. Ostensibly a mythological subject, the painting is a naturalistic studio work, the figure carefully observed, solidly modeled, and superimposed upon a contrived landscape. If the work is still a 'student' piece, already Renoir's heightened personal response to female sensuality is present. The model was Lise Tr??hot, then the artist's mistress and inspiration for a number of paintings.
In the late 1860s, through the practice of painting light and water en plein air (in the open air), he and his friend Claude Monet discovered that the color of shadows is not brown or black, but the reflected color of the objects surrounding them. Several pairs of paintings exist in which Renoir and Monet, working side-by-side, depicted the same scenes (La Grenouill??re, 1869).
One of the best known Impressionist works is Renoir's 1876 Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette (Le Bal au Moulin de la Galette). The painting depicts an open-air scene, crowded with people, at a popular dance garden on the Butte Montmartre, close to where he lived.
On the Terrace, oil on canvas, 1881, Art Institute of ChicagoThe works of his early maturity were typically Impressionist snapshots of real life, full of sparkling colour and light. By the mid 1880s, however, he had broken with the movement to apply a more disciplined, formal technique to portraits and figure paintings, particularly of women, such as The Bathers, which was created during 1884-87. It was a trip to Italy in 1881, when he saw works by Raphael and other Renaissance masters, that convinced him that he was on the wrong path, and for the next several years he painted in a more severe style, in an attempt to return to classicism. This is sometimes called his "Ingres period", as he concentrated on his drawing and emphasized the outlines of figures.
After 1890, however, he changed direction again, returning to the use of thinly brushed color which dissolved outlines as in his earlier work. From this period onward he concentrated especially on monumental nudes and domestic scenes, fine examples of which are Girls at the Piano, 1892, and Grandes Baigneuses, 1918-19. The latter painting is the most typical and successful of Renoir's late, abundantly fleshed nudes.
A prolific artist, he made several thousand paintings. The warm sensuality of Renoir's style made his paintings some of the most well-known and frequently-reproduced works in the history of art.. Related Paintings of Pierre Renoir :. | Claude Monet Painting | Jugglers at the Cirque Fernando | Charles and Georges Durand-Ruel | Skaters in the Bois de Boulogne | Nude on Cushions |
Related Artists:Francis Wheatley
British Francis Wheatley Location
Francis Wheatley (1747 - June 28, 1801), was an English portrait and landscape painter, was born at Wild Court, Covent Garden, London. He studied at Shipleys drawing-school and the Royal Academy, and won several prizes from the Society of Arts. He assisted in the decoration of Vauxhall, and aided Mortimer in painting a ceiling for Lord Melbourne at Brocket Hall (Hertfordshire). In youth his life was irregular and dissipated. He eloped to Ireland with the wife of Gresse, a brother artist, and established himself in Dublin as a portrait-painter, executing, among other works, an interior of the Irish House of Commons. His scene from the Gordon Riots of 1780 was engraved by Heath. He painted several subjects for Boydells Shakespeare Gallery, designed illustrations to Bells edition of the poets, and practised to some small extent as an etcher and mezzotint-engraver. It is, however, as a painter, in both oil and water-color, of landscapes and rustic subjects that Wheatley is best remembered. He was elected an associate of the Royal Academy in 1790, and an academician in the following year. His wife, as Mrs Pope after his death, was known as a painter of flowers and portraits.fredrik westin
Fredric Westin, född den 22 september 1782 i Stockholm, död 13 maj 1862 i Stockholm, historie- och porträttmålare.
Westin hade varit elev hos Lorens Pasch d.y. och Louis Masreliez på Konstakademien. Sedan han 1808 blivit kallad till akademiens agr?? och förordnad till konduktör vid kungliga museet blev han 1812 invald i Konstakademiens styrelse. Han blev 1815 vice professor och 1816 professor vid Konstakademien. Där var han också 1828-1840 direktör. 1843 utnämndes han till hovintendent.
Till hans tidigare skede och till hans främsta alster hör "Dagens stunder", fyra dörrstycken i Karl Johans sängkammare på Rosersbergs slott med antikiserande figurer: Aurora som strör blommor över jorden, Apollon med sitt fyrspann, Diana följd av Aftonrodnaden samt Natten med sitt stjärnströdda dok (1812-13). På Säfstaholms slott finns "De fyra årstiderna presiderade av jordens gudinna" (1843), på Rosendals slott "Hebe med örnen" (1832) och "Flora bekransande Linn??s byst" (1843) och vid Stockholms universitet "Musiken, föreställd av en grupp unga flickor". Han målade också kompositioner ur den svenska historien ("Olof Skötkonungs dop", "Lutherska lärans antagande").
Westin målade en stor mängd porträtt då han under Karl XIV Johans tid var konstnären på modet. Som porträttmålare var han dock inte enhälligt uppskattad. En kritiker som Silverstolpe beklagade 1809 att en konstnär som "äger så mycken färdighet till stöd för sitt sökande av idealet" sysselsatte sig med en konst av så lågt värde och hoppades att han "måtte återvända från den platta verkliga världen till den poetiska." Hammarsköld menade 1818 att av de svenska konstnärerna var det Westin som hade de ringaste anlagen för porträttmålning. Scholander kallade hans porträtt för "vaxgubbar". Andra hade lovord att fälla över Westins porträtt. Gerss ansåg att Westins porträtt hade likhet och behag i uttrycket, enkelhet i ställning och klädsel, urval av natur i formerna och säkerhet och sanning i utförandet. Wennberg kallade honom "den förste svenske tecknarens Lorenz Paschs så värdige fosterson".
Under Karl XIV Johans tid målade han rad porträtt på kungafamiljen. 1824 målade han en populär allegori över kronprinsessan Josefinas ankomst till Sverige, där Saga i gul och blå dräkt sitter på marken framför en runsten och blickar upp mot skyn där kronprinsessan i röd och vit dräkt svävar ned på en molntapp omgiven av tre amoriner. 1838 målade han Karl XIV Johan till häst på Ladugårdsgärdet hälsande med den trekantiga hatten.
Efter att Sandbergs altartavla för Sankt Jacobs kyrka hade underkänts vände sig de ansvariga till Westin med uppdraget att måla en altartavla. Målningen, "Kristi förklaring" var klar 1828 och resultatet blev både hyllat och kritiserat. Andra altartavlor av Westin finns i Kungsholms kyrka ("Kristi uppståndelse", 1825), Åbo domkyrka ("Kristi förklaring", 1836), Uddevalla kyrka ("Kristus välsignar barnen") samt Carl Gustafs kyrka ("Kristi begravning", 1832).Theodore Roussel
English Painter, 1847-1926
English painter and etcher of French birth. He was born and educated in France and settled in England in 1878, when he quickly established a reputation. Largely self-taught, his few extant early paintings show an eclectic style that combines the techniques of the Old Masters, which he studied in detail, with the subject-matter of modern urban life. In 1885 he was introduced to James McNeill Whistler, his neighbour in Chelsea, London, and in consequence a lifelong friendship was formed. As Roussel was a member of Whistler's London circle his work in watercolour and oil was influenced by the latter in style and choice of subject-matter. His oft-quoted remark that he was a 'pupil of Whistler' is, however, belied by his frequently distinct style, as seen in such paintings as the Reading Girl (1886-7; London, Tate). In 1888 Whistler introduced him to the techniques of etching and drypoint, resulting in such etchings as the Sign of the 'White Horse', Parson's Green (c. 1893-4; see Rutter, pl. xxx). For the remainder of his life he relentlessly pursued the medium, even, like Whistler, designing his own special frames. Always fascinated by the theoretical and practical nature of colour science, he constantly experimented and was an early pioneer of the technique of colour etching in England, producing such works as Dawn.